A Look into Terawulf: The Bitcoin Miners with Nuclear Energy


A Nuclear plant

Terawulf is one of the largest Bitcoin mining companies in the United States. They have been making headlines recently for partnering with Talen Energy to utilise nuclear energy to power their mining operations. This collaboration has led to the creation of the Nautilus Cryptomine facility, the first nuclear-powered Bitcoin mining operation in the country. In this post, we’ll take a deeper look into Terawulf and their pioneering use of nuclear energy.

Terawulf’s Mining Operations

Terawulf Logo

Founded in 2019, Terawulf is a Bitcoin self-mining company that develops and operates dedicated cryptocurrency mining facilities. The company mines Bitcoin through a combination of self-mining and hosting services for institutional miners.

Why Nuclear Energy?

A Nuclear Plant

Terawulf’s decision to tap nuclear energy for crypto mining comes down to three main factors – reliability, cost efficiency and sustainability.

Reliable Baseload Power

Nuclear reactors produce steady baseload power regardless of environmental conditions, providing a reliable and constant supply of energy. This ensures smooth and uninterrupted mining operations, unlike intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar.

Low Electricity Costs

Terawulf secured a highly favourable electricity rate of $0.02 per kilowatt-hour from Talen Energy for the Nautilus Cryptomine. This is less than a quarter of the US industrial average electricity rate. Cheap nuclear power results in lower mining costs and higher profit margins.

Carbon-Free Energy

Nuclear energy does not produce any greenhouse gas emissions. While controversial, it is considered a clean energy source compared to fossil fuels. Using nuclear allows Terawulf to position itself as an environmentally sustainable Bitcoin miner.

Terawulf currently has two operational Bitcoin mining sites:

  • The New York Facility
  • The Nautilus Cryptomine

The Nautilus Cryptomine Facility

The Nautilus Cryptomine is located adjacent to Talen’s Susquehanna nuclear plant near Berwick, Pennsylvania. It occupies a 300,000-square-foot facility on the grounds of the plant.

Some key facts about the facility:

  • It draws power directly from the 2.5 gigawatt Susquehanna plant’s two nuclear reactors.
  • Construction was completed in late 2022, with mining operations slated to begin in Q1 2023.
  • In the first phase, Terawulf will deploy 50 MW of capacity and nearly 16,000 miners to achieve a hash rate of 1.9 EH/s.
  • The site can support up to 100 MW of total capacity that Terawulf plans to build out in the future.
  • Talen Energy’s subsidiary Cumulus Data developed and operates the data centre infrastructure.
  • Terawulf has a 25% ownership stake in the Nautilus Cryptomine.

How It Benefits Both Sides

The Nautilus Cryptomine is a win-win for both Terawulf and Talen Energy.

For Terawulf, the partnership provides access to cheap, reliable and clean nuclear power to lower its mining costs. Talen gets a major stable customer for its plant, ensuring high utilization rates.

The electricity demand from crypto mining helps balance the plant’s energy load. This synergistic dynamic led to the partnership between the two companies.

Controversies Around Nuclear Mining

Utilising nuclear power for crypto mining has also sparked controversies. Critics have called it an attempt at “greenwashing” and pointed to associated environmental impacts. Some other concerns include;

1. Radioactive Waste: A major concern is the radioactive spent fuel produced by nuclear reactors that can remain hazardous for thousands of years. Proper permanent disposal remains a challenge.

2. Water Usage: The massive amounts of water used for cooling by nuclear plants can affect local aquatic ecosystems. The Susquehanna plant draws over 50 million gallons of water daily from the river.

3. Refueling Downtime: Nuclear plants need to periodically shut down every 18-24 months for refueling. It is unclear how Nautilus Cryptomine will maintain operations during this downtime when the reactors are offline.

While Terawulf maintains its nuclear mining is sustainable, critics argue cleaner renewable energy should power Bitcoin’s energy-intensive mining. This debate will likely continue as more miners adopt nuclear power.

The Future of Nuclear Crypto Mining

Terawulf’s Nautilus Cryptomine is the first major Bitcoin mining operation in the US to use nuclear energy, but it may not be the last. 

Bitcoin Mining

The steady economics of nuclear plants combined with mining’s appetite for cheap energy make it an intriguing match. If the Nautilus facility succeeds, it could compel more nuclear generators to reach similar partnerships with miners. For example, Marathon Digital and Tal have already partnered with Lake Parime to launch a 20 MW nuclear-powered mining facility in Ohio. More such deals could emerge in the coming years.

However, the volatile nature of crypto and concerns around nuclear power could limit widespread adoption. Regardless, Terawulf’s pioneering nuclear mining venture will be closely watched by the industry. Terawulf believes nuclear energy is the ideal energy source for sustainable Bitcoin mining. But as the Nautilus Cryptomine powers up, the company will have to contend with critical scrutiny of its claims and approach. Whether nuclear-powered mining is poised for growth or fades as a novelty will become clearer in the next few years.

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